If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Supranuclear upper motor neuron pathways. Facial nucleus and fascicles lower motor neuron.
This page was enrolled in the Residents and Fellows contest. Facial nerve palsy includes both paralysis and weakness of the seventh cranial nerve. Ocular signs and symptoms of facial nerve palsy include inability to close the eye, dry eye syndrome, as well as eye redness, tearing, burning, and foreign body sensation.
Look for asymmetry in facial shape or in depth of furrows such as the nasolabial fold. Also look for asymmetries in spontaneous facial expressions and blinking. Ask patient to smile, puff out their cheeks, clench their eyes tight, wrinkle their brow, and so on.
The facial motor nucleus is a collection of neurons in the brainstem that belong to the facial nerve cranial nerve VII. These lower motor neurons innervate the muscles of facial expression and the stapedius. The nucleus is situated in the caudal portion of the ventrolateral pontine tegmentum. Its axons take an unusual course, traveling dorsally and looping around the abducens nucleusthen traveling ventrally to exit the ventral pons medial to the spinal trigeminal nucleus.
Facial palsy refers to the neurological syndrome of facial paralysis. It can result from a broad range of physiological insults to the facial nerve or its central nervous system origins. The most common causes of this is Bell palsy.
Central facial palsy colloquially referred to as central seven is a symptom or finding characterized by paralysis or paresis of the lower half of one side of the face. It usually results from damage to upper motor neurons of the facial nerve. The facial motor nucleus has dorsal and ventral divisions that contain lower motor neurons supplying the muscles of the upper and lower face, respectively.
A facial palsy is weakness or paralysis of the muscles of the face. Many causative associations have been proposed, the most universally accepted theory suggests a viral originyet no conclusive evidence is available at present. Depending on the severity and the proximity of the nerve affected, it can also result in:.
Professional Reference articles are designed for health professionals to use. You may find the Bell's Palsy article more useful, or one of our other health articles. Synonym: Bell's palsy lower motor neurone facial palsy ; idiopathic facial paralysis IFP. Damage to the facial nerve - either upper motor neurone UMN or lower motor neurone LMN - produces weak muscles of facial expression.
Isolated facial muscle weakness is an uncommon presentation to the ED and may be quickly diagnosed by the unwary as Bells palsy. The Emergency Physician must be aware of two potential pitfalls when presented with a patient with facial weakness:. Bells palsy is defined as an acute idiopathic peripheral facial nerve paresis and is the most common cause of acute peripheral facial weakness 1.
Facial paralysis is one of the common problem leading to facial deformation. Bell's palsy BP is defined as a lower motor neuron palsy of acute onset and idiopathic origin. BP is regarded as a benign common neurological disorder of unknown cause. It has an acute onset and is almost always a mononeuritis.